Somali state failure and its aftermath

Adam, Hussein M. 'Somalia: A Terrible Beauty Being Born?,' in Collapsed States: The Disintegration and Restoration of Legitimate Authority, edited by I William Zartman, 69-89: London: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1995.

The Africa Watch Committee. Somalia: A Government at War with Its Own People. New York:  Africa Watch, 1990. 

Barnes, Cedric and Harun Hassan. 'The Rise and Fall of Mogadishu's Islamic Courts.' Journal of Eastern African Studies 1, no. 2 (2007): 151-60.

Bradbury, Mark. Becoming Somaliland. African Issues. London: Progressio, 1998.

Brooks, Rosa Ehrenreich. 'Failed States, or the State as Failure.' The University of Chicago Law Review 72, no. 4 (2005): 1158-96.

Bryden, Matt, and Jeremy Brickhill. 'Disarming Somalia: Lessons in Stabilisation from a Collapsed State.' Conflict, Security, and Development 10, no. ii (2010): 239-62.

Clark, Jeffrey. 'Debacle in Somalia: Failure of the Collective Response,' in Enforcing Restraint: Collective Intervention in Internal Conflicts, edited by Lori Fisler Damrosch, 205-40. New York: Council on Foreign Relations Press, 1993.

Clarke, Walter S. and Robert Gosende. 'Somalia: Can a Collapsed State Reconstitute Itself?,' in State Failure and State Weakness in a Time of Terror, edited by Robert I Rotberg, 129-58: Washington DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2003.

Doornbos, Martin. 'When Is a State a State? Exploring Puntland, Somalia,' in Global Forces and State Restructuring: Dynamics of State Formation and Collapse. New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 2006.

Dorward, David. 'Insights from a Trip through Puntland: Civil Society in a 'Quango-State'.' Australasian Review of African Studies 25, no. 1 (2003): 38-51.

Galaydh, Ali K. 'Notes on the State of the Somali State.' Horn of Africa 13, no. 1-2 (January-June 1990): 1-28.

Geshekter, Charles. "Somali Maritime History and Regional Sub-Cultures: A Neglected Theme of the Somali Crisis." In New Directions in Maritime History, edited by Australian Association for Maritime History and the International Commission of Maritime History. Fremantle, Australia: Australian Association for Maritime History, 1993.

Helman, Gerald B, and Steven R Ratner. 'Saving Failed States.' Foreign Policy Winter, no. 89 (1993): 2-18.

Hirsch, John L. Somalia and Operation Restore Hope: Reflections on Peacemaking and Peacekeeping.  Washington DC: US Institute of Peace Press, 1995.

Little, Peter D. Somalia: Economy without State. African Issues. Edited by Alex de Waal & Stephen Ellis. Bloomington & Indianopolis: Indiana University Press, 2003.

Lyons, Terrence and Ahmed I. Samatar. Somalia: State Collapse, Multilateral Intervention, and Strategies for Political Reconstruction. Brookings Occasional Papers.  Washington DC: Brookings Institution, 1995.

Menkhaus, Ken. 'Governance without Government in Somalia.' International Security 31, no. 3 (2007): 74-106.

Natsios, Andrew S. 'Humanitarian Relief Intervention in Somalia: The Economics of Chaos,' in Learning from Somalia: The Lessons of Armed Humanitarian Intervention, edited by Walter Clarke and Jeffrey Herbst. Boulder: Westview Press, 1997.

Rotberg, Robert I. 'Failed States, Collapsed States, Weak States: Causes and Indicators,' in State Failure and State Weakness in a Time of Terror, edited by Robert I Rotberg. Washington DC: World Peace Foundation and Harvard University's Program on Intrastate Conflict, 2003.

Sahnoun, M. M. Somalia: The Missed Opportunities.  Washington DC: United States Institute of Peace Press, 1994.

Samatar, Said S. Somalia: A Nation in Turmoil.  London: The Minority Rights Group, 1991. 

Zartman, I William. Collapsed States: The Disintegration and Restoration of Legitimate Authority. Edited by I William Zartman. SAIS African Studies Library. Colorado: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1995.

Next: Pre-state collapse and historical sources on Somalia